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Rights-retention Open Access Policy

“Smarter Open Access Workflow”というテーマのDigital Scienceのウェビナーを(ようやく)見た。

  • Implementing Open Access policies at the University of California / Catherine Mitchell (California Digital Library)
  • Automate it! Open Access compliance as a by-product of better workflows / Torsten Reimer (Imperial College London)
  • Rights retention Open Access policies / Peter Suber (Harvard University)

という3人がプレゼンを行っている。CDLとICLの事例は知っていたけど、最後のPeter Suberははじめはなにを言っているのかよく分からなかった。話の主旨としては、こういうポリシーがあればワークフローがスマートになるよということなんだけど。

Seeking permission can be time-consuming, difficult, inconsistent from author to author, and typically unsuccessful.
(snip)
However, Peter argued that the problem can also be solved if key rights are never granted to the publisher, but instead retained by the author or the institution. This is the basis of a rights retention Open Access policy.
https://www.digital-science.com/blog/events/smarter-open-access-workflows-digital-science-webinar-summary/

スライドはCC BYだったけど、ウェブ上では見当たらず。

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ハーバード型OAポリシー

実際にこんなポリシーの例があるのか?と調べてみて、いわゆる「ハーバード型OAポリシー」というもののエッセンスを自分が理解してなかったことに気づく(恥)。

Each Faculty member grants to the President and Fellows of Harvard College permission to make available his or her scholarly articles and to exercise the copyright in those articles. In legal terms, the permission granted by each Faculty member is a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license to exercise any and all rights under copyright relating to each of his or her scholarly articles, in any medium, and to authorize others to do the same, provided that the articles are not sold for a profit.
https://osc.hul.harvard.edu/policies/
https://osc.hul.harvard.edu/policies/fas/

This is a guide to good practices for college and university open-access (OA) policies. It's based on the type of rights-retention OA policy first adopted at Harvard, Stanford, MIT, and the University of Kansas. Policies of this kind have since been adopted at a wide variety of institutions in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, for example, at affluent and indigent institutions, public and private institutions, research universities and liberal arts colleges, and at whole universities, schools within universities, and departments within schools.
http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/hoap/Good_practices_for_university_open-access_policies

The license applies immediately upon copyright vesting in the article, and thus predates any transfer of copyright to a publisher. If a publisher has a policy that is inconsistent with this license — for instance in requiring that no distributions occur until expiration of an embargo period — then it must either make an exception for an article falling under the OA policy or get the author to obtain a waiver of the license.
https://blogs.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2009/06/09/are-the-harvard-open-access-policies-unfair/

An emerging and interesting development is the adoption of rights-retention open access policies (Harvard Open Access Project, 2016). To date, such policies have been adopted by at least 60 schools and institutions worldwide, including some in Canada, Iceland, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, and U.S. universities like Harvard (Harvard Library, Office for Scholary Communication, 2016) and MIT (MIT Libraries, Scholarly Publishing, 2016). These policies involve an agreement by the faculty to grant universities non-exclusive reuse rights on future published works. By putting such a policy in place prior to publication, faculty work can be openly archived without the need to negotiate with publishers to retain or recover rights; open is the default. We expect to see adoption of such policies grow in coming years.
https://elifesciences.org/content/5/e16800

疑問

よく分からないのは実際のワークフロー。

ハーバードの科学者は、いわゆるGreenジャーナル以外には、論文発表ができない?
http://drf.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/drfml/msg00591.html

waiverの道は用意されてるし、上のスライドの8枚目でも“Freedom to publish in the journals of their choice”を挙げてるから、そんなことはないんだろうけど。

ただ、建前としては(?)、ハーバード型のOA方針を策定した大学では、SHERPA/RoMEOなどで出版社の著作権ポリシーを確認することなく、著者最終稿(に限らない?)をリポジトリに登録して良いということになるのだろうか。リポジトリ登録のワークフローにおいて著作権チェックの負担が占める部分は大きいので、ここをスキップして良いというのならすばらしいけど。



関連した話で、The University of Tennesseeが“Author's Rights Retention Kit”というガイドを公開していた。どうもこの大学はETD以外のOAポリシーを策定してなさそうだ(から、こういうガイドを)。
http://libguides.utk.edu/c.php?g=188785